Last Updated on May 1, 2021 by Admin
Construction materials or Building materials is a material used for construction. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many manufactured products are used, some more and some less synthetic. We have discussed here the various types of construction materials used in building constructions.
The construction materials list includes cement, steel, sand, concrete, ready-mix concrete, binding wires, aggregates, bricks, blocks, etc. apart from these, various eco-friendly construction materials are also used as construction materials.
Materials used in building construction have to be selected carefully to ensure the safety and long-lasting life of the building. Construction materials’ definition is the materials used in construction projects are called construction materials.
Types of Construction Materials
Buildings can be categorized into five different types of construction: fire-resistive, non-combustible, ordinary, heavy timber, and wood-framed. Based on the construction types, there are various materials used in the construction of buildings.
All these construction materials are used in building construction projects. Find below the construction materials list, construction materials name list with pictures, and various construction materials used in house construction.
1. Cement – Construction Materials
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens, and adheres to other materials to bind them together. Cement is seldom used on its own but rather to bind sand and gravel together. Cement companies produced mixed with fine aggregate produce mortar for masonry, or with sand and gravel produces concrete.
2. Structural Steel
Structural steel is a popular construction material, often used alongside concrete to create impressive and long-lasting buildings. Its versatility, sustainability, and flexibility are some of the main reasons for its use and cost-effectiveness.
3. Reinforcement Steel
Steel reinforcement bars or rebars are used to improve the tensile strength of the concrete since concrete is fragile in tension but is strong in compression. Steel is only used as rebar because of the elongation of steel due to high temperatures (thermal expansion coefficient) nearly equal to that of concrete.
Carbon steel is the most common form of steel rebar. Rebar is commonly used as a tensioning device in reinforced concrete and reinforced masonry structures holding the concrete in compression.
Bitumen is a material obtained by fractional distillation of crude petroleum as an end product. According to IS: 334-1951, bitumen is a non-crystalline solid or viscous material having adhesive properties derived from petroleum either by natural or refinery process.
Bituminous materials are used for road construction, roofing, waterproofing, and other applications. For the main application, which is road construction, the major concerns, as with concrete, are cost and durability.
5. River sand or Natural sand as a Construction Materials
This sand is white-grey and is one of the fine graded sands used in the construction of buildings. They are mainly used in concrete and masonry work. They can also be used for RCC, plastering, and many other brick or block works.
Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the entire world. These materials include cement, water, fine aggregate, and crushed stones or gravel. Sand and gravel or crushed stones are examples of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate, respectively.
7. Ready-mix concrete
Ready-Mix Concrete is manufactured in a batch plant, according to a set engineered mix design.
8. Binding wires
Binding Wire is used for tying applications in the field of construction. It is used extensively in the construction sector to tying the rebars at the joints to keep the structure intact. Binding wire is also called annealed wire and is made of mild steel.
9. Fly Ash
Fly ash is a fine powder that is a byproduct of burning pulverized coal in electric generation power plants. Fly ash is a pozzolan, a substance containing aluminous and siliceous material that forms cement in the presence of water.
Fly ash can be used as prime material in many cement-based products, such as poured concrete, concrete block, and brick.
One of the most common uses of fly ash is in Portland cement concrete pavement or PCC pavement. Road construction projects using PCC can use a great deal of concrete, and substituting fly ash provides significant economic benefits.
10. Aggregate – Construction Materials
Construction aggregate, or simply aggregate, is a broad category of coarse to medium-grained particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete, and geosynthetic aggregates. Aggregates are the most mined materials in the world.
A brick is a type of block used to build walls, pavements, and other elements in masonry construction. Properly, the term brick denotes a block composed of dried clay but is now also used informally to denote other chemically cured construction blocks.
Bricks can be joined together using mortar, adhesives, or by interlocking them. Bricks are produced in numerous classes, types, materials, and sizes which vary with region and time period and are produced in bulk quantities.
Blocks are constructed using concrete or cement. They may include a hollow core to make them lighter and to improve their insulation properties. They are now used for various purposes, such as the construction of load-bearing walls, retaining walls, partitions, and foundations.
13. Timber (Wood) as a Construction Materials
Timber is used indoors, windows, cabinet, cupboards, shelves, tables, and railings, etc. Timber is also popularly used in the form of plywood & raw wood. Products like ply blocks and ply boards, heavy patterned doors, and windows are made of solid wood/Timber to provide strength, toughness, and durability.
Also, Wood is one of the most used natural building materials in the world. Hardwoods are commonly used to construct walls, ceilings, and floors, while softwoods are often used to make doors, furniture, and window frames. Some examples of the most popular hardwoods include oak, maple, mahogany, cherry, walnut, and teak.
Masonry is building structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves.
The basic materials of masonry construction include brick, building stone such as marble, granite, and limestone, cast stone, concrete block, glass block, and adobe.
It is generally a highly durable form of construction. However, the materials used, the quality of the mortar and artistry, and the pattern in which the units are assembled can substantially affect the durability of the overall masonry construction.
Mason or Bricklayer is the person who constructs masonry. Masonry can be classified into A. Stone Masonry. B. Brick Masonry. C. Composite Masonry. D. Cavity walls. E. Lintel & Arches.