Last Updated on March 13, 2023 by Admin
Just like deriving all the news we need from a news channel, wouldn’t it be nice if we could find a base channel for all the information about the stock market? To our luck, there is a channel which displays all important movements in the Indian stock market. It is called the stock market index or a stock index, which is a major indicator of any changes happening in the Indian stock market.
Here we are going to be looking at everything we need to know about these indices.
Table of Contents
What is a Stock Market Index?
Stock market indices are statistical indicators that show changes in stock market movements. Similar equities are chosen from a group of securities that are already listed on the stock exchange and then combined to form an index.
The factors for stock selection can include market capitalization, industry type, and company size. The value of the index is determined by the value of the underlying equities. It indicates that as the value of individual stocks rises, so will the index.
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Types of Stock Market Indices
There are not one or two stock market indices today; let’s find out what all of them are:
1) Sector Indices
It is thought that indices like the S&P BSE Healthcare and NSE Pharma are reliable predictors of developments in the pharmaceutical industry. The S&P BSE PSU and Nifty PSU Bank Indexes, which are indices of all publicly traded public sector banks, are two examples.
Strong indicators that evaluate businesses in a certain industry are available on both the BSE and the NSE.
However, neither exchange is compelled to offer comparable indices for all industries, despite the fact that this is a major contributing factor.
2) Benchmark Indices
The NSE and the Bombay Stock Exchange’s respective indices are the Nifty 50 index, which includes the top 50 best-performing stocks, and the BSE Sensex Index, which includes the top 30 best-performing firms. Since they use the highest criteria to govern the firms they choose, this set of stocks is referred to as a benchmark index.
They are therefore considered as the most trustworthy resource of knowledge regarding how markets function generally.
3) Market Cap Indices
Only a small number of indexes choose firms based on their market capitalisation. The stock exchange market value of any publicly listed firm is referred to as market capitalization.
Companies having a smaller market capitalization as determined by the Securities Exchange Board of India make up indices like the S&P BSE and NSE small cap 50. (SEBI).
4) Other Indices
The S&P BSE 500, NSE 100, and S&P BSE 100 are a few other indexes that are significantly bigger and have more stocks listed on them.
If you don’t like taking risks, Sensex stocks might not be the best option for you. Investment portfolios are not intended to meet every need. Investors must maintain their focus and make investments in sectors where they feel comfortable.
Importance of Stock Market Index
A stock index is a barometer that reflects the general state of the markets or the sector it represents. Indices are extremely useful for determining the broad direction the market appears to be moving.
Indices help investors choose good equities for investment and serve as a benchmark against which to measure their performance.
One can evaluate the performance of a stock portfolio by determining whether it outperforms the index by providing higher returns than the index or whether it underperforms by providing lower returns than the index. Because an index is usually made up of organizations that are classified together based on some factor, it serves as a peer comparison measure.
For example, one can determine which bank in the Nifty PSU index has given the highest returns over the last year.
The capacity of indices to reflect investor sentiment is one of their most important advantages. It is a well-known fact that investor mood significantly impacts a stock price because it directly influences demand.
Indices are also a useful tool for passive investors who want to reduce the cost and time required to conduct research in order to select the most relevant stocks based on their risk tolerance and goals. As a result, they build a portfolio of equities that match a specific index in order to mimic the index’s results, or they invest in index ETFs (Exchange-traded Funds).
Formation of a Stock Market Index
Equities with comparable market capitalizations, firm sizes, or industries are combined to create a stock market index. The index is then calculated using the stock selection. The price range in one stock will differ from the price range in another, and each stock will have its own pricing.
Due to this, the index value cannot be obtained by simply adding the stock prices. As a result, giving stocks weights comes into play. Depending on its current market price or market capitalization, each stock in the index is assigned a certain weight.
Overall, indices are extremely important as a representative or benchmark of a specific sector or the entire market as a whole, and they serve as a very useful tool for investors to assess a wide range of factors, from the performance of their portfolio to the impact of a specific event on market performance.