Last Updated on March 24, 2022 by Admin
Apprenticeship is a Skill Training program wherein a person is engaged by a company as an apprentice and gains classroom (theory) learning for a short period, followed by on-the-job (practical) training. read to learn more about the apprenticeship training in India.
What is Apprenticeship Training?
Apprenticeship Training is a course of training in any industry or establishment, undergone in pursuance of a contract of apprenticeship between employer and apprentices and under prescribed terms and conditions.
Apprenticeship is a system for training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training (OJT) and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading).
Apprenticeship training is a course of training in industry or establishment under a contract of
apprenticeship, which consists of:–
a) basic training component and
b) on-the-job training (OJT)/practical training at the workplace.
All sectors, including manufacturing and service, are covered under the Apprenticeship Act 1961.
Apprenticeships can also enable practitioners to gain a license to practice in a regulated occupation. Most of their training is done while working for an employer who helps the apprentices learn their trade or profession in exchange for continued labor for an agreed period after achieving measurable competencies.
Apprenticeship lengths vary significantly across sectors, professions, roles, and cultures. In some cases, people who complete an apprenticeship can reach the professional certification level of competence.
In other cases, they can be offered a permanent job at the company that provided the placement. The concept of on-the-job training leading to competence over the years is found in any skilled labor field.
Who’s an Apprentice?
An apprentice is a person who has signed a contract of apprenticeship with an establishment to undergo apprenticeship training.
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Is Apprenticeship training Mandated under any Act?
- All establishments having a workforce (regular and contract employees) of 30 or more are mandated to undertake Apprenticeship Programs in a range from 2.5% -15% of its workforce (including contractual employees) every year.
- For establishments having a workforce between 4-29, this is optional.
- Establishments that have a workforce of 3 or less are not permitted to engage apprentices.
Apprenticeships are probably the oldest public-private partnership in history – they have been around for a matter of centuries. They form part of the solution to help get young people into the labor market by equipping them with technical and core skills needed to take on new jobs, both today and in the future.
Under the law, it is also mandated for all establishments having more than three employees (including contractual employees) to engage apprentices. A proven solution for training and retaining world-class talent which is industry-ready.
There is no global consensus on a single term. Depending on the culture, country, and sector, the same or very similar definitions are used to describe apprenticeship, internship, and trainee-ship.
Apprenticeship is the preferred term of the European Commission and the one selected for use by the European Center for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP), which has developed many studies on the subject. Some non-European countries adapt European apprenticeship practices. Malaysia, for instance, has collaborated with the German industry to build its technical professions.
Apprenticeship Training in India
In India, the Apprentices Act was enacted in 1961. It regulates the program of training of apprentices in the industry to conform to the syllabi, period of training, etc., as laid down by the Central Apprenticeship Council and fully utilizes the facilities available in the industry for imparting practical training to meet the requirements of skilled manpower for the industry.
It has been realized that Apprenticeship Training Scheme is one of the most important sources of supply of skilled workforce to the industry. With this objective, the Apprentices Act 1961 was enacted in the parliament on 23rd December 1961. The Act came into force on 1st March 1962 and applied to the whole of India.
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Apprentices Act, 1961 was enacted with the following objectives:–
- To regulate the program of training of apprentices in the industry to conform to the prescribed syllabi, period of training, etc. as laid down by the Central Apprenticeship Council; and
- To utilize the facilities available in the industry for imparting practical training to meet the skilled workforce requirements for the industry.
Initially, the Act envisaged the training of trade apprentices. The Act was amended in 1973 to include training of graduate and diploma engineers as “Graduate” & “Technician” Apprentices. The Act was further amended in 1986 to bring the training of the 10+2 vocational stream as “Technician (Vocational)” Apprentices within its purview.
Responsibility for implementing Apprentices Act
Overall responsibility is with the Directorate General of Employment & Training (DGE&T) in the Union Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship.
- For Trades Apprentices (ITI-Passed/Fresher): DGE&T is also responsible for implementing the Act regarding Trade Apprentices in the Central Govt. Undertakings & Departments. This is done through six Regional Directorates of Apprenticeship Training located at Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad, Kanpur, and Faridabad. At the same time, State Apprenticeship Advisers are responsible for implementing the Act regarding Trade Apprentices in State Government Undertakings/ Departments and Private Establishments.
- For Graduate, Technician (Polytechnic Diploma holder) and Technician (H.S Vocational-Passed) Apprentices: Department of Education in the Ministry of Human Resource Development is responsible for implementing the through four Boards Apprenticeship Training located at Chennai, Kanpur, Kolkata, and Mumbai.
What is the Role of MSDE
The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) is responsible for the coordination of all Skill Development efforts across the country, removal of disconnect between demand and supply of skilled manpower, building the vocational and technical training framework, skill up-gradation, building of new skills, and innovative thinking not only for existing jobs but also jobs that are to be created.
The Ministry aims to skill on a large scale with speed and high standards to achieve its vision of a ‘Skilled India.’
It is aided in these initiatives by its functional arms –
- Directorate General of Training (DGT),
- National Skill Development Agency (NSDA),
- National Council for Vocational Education and Training (NCVET),
- National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC),
- National Skill Development Fund (NSDF)
and 38 Sector Skill Councils (SSCs) as well as 33 National Skill Training Institutes (NSTIs/NSTI(w)), about 15000 Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) under DGT, and 187 training partners registered with NSDC.
The Ministry also intends to work with the existing network of Skill Development centers, universities, and other alliances in the field.
Further, collaborations with relevant Central Ministries, State governments, international organizations, industry, and NGOs have been initiated for multi-level engagement and more impactful implementation of Skill Development efforts in India.
Schemes & Initiatives MSDE
Schemes & Initiatives through NSDC
- Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)
- Rozgar Mela
- Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Kendras (PMKK)
- Capacity Building Scheme
- School Initiatives and Higher Education
- India International Skill Centres (IISCs)
- Pre Departure Orientation Training (PDOT)
Schemes & Initiatives through DGT
- Craftsmen Training Scheme (CTS)
- Crafts Instructor Training Scheme (CITS)
- Apprenticeship Training under the Apprentices Act, 1961
- Advanced Vocational Training Scheme (AVTS)
- Vocational Training Programme For Women
- Schemes for Up-gradation of it is
- Flexi MoUs
- Initiatives in the North East and LWE Regions
- Trade Testing
- Current Initiatives in the DGT Landscape
- Dual System of Training (DST)
Schemes related to Entrepreneurship
- Pradhan Mantri ‘YUVA’ Yojana
Other Schemes and Initiatives
- Skill Loan Scheme
- Indian Institute of Skills (IIS)
- Academic Equivalence to Vocational Qualifications
- Aspirational Districts
- Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
- Technology Initiatives
Kindly visit https://msde.gov.in/en and click on the “Schemes & Initiatives” menu tab to visit the individual pages.
Types of apprenticeships
Apprenticeships can be divided into two main categories: Independent and Cooperative.
Independent apprenticeships are those organized and managed by employers without any involvement from educational institutions. They happen dissociated from any educational curricula, which means that, usually, the apprentices are not involved in any educational program at the same time. Even if they are, there is no relation between the undergoing studies and the apprenticeship.
Cooperative apprenticeships are those organized and managed in cooperation between educational institutions and employers. They vary in governance, some being more employer lead and others more educational institution lead, but they are always associated with a curriculum. They are designed as a means for students to put theory into practice and master knowledge to empower them with professional autonomy.
In India, as per the Directorate General of Training(DGT) under the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship(MSDE), Apprenticeship training can be provided to apprentices both in designated and optional trades.
1. Designated trade
Designated trade means any trade or occupation as notified by the Government.
2. Optional trade
Optional trade means any trade or occupation decided by an employer.
Categories of apprentices
There are five categories of apprentices:
1. Trade apprentices
A person undergoing apprenticeship training in any designated trade (ITI Holder)
2. Graduate apprentices
A person who holds a degree in engineering /non – engineering and undergoing apprenticeship training in a designated trade
3. Technician apprentices
A person who holds a diploma in engineering/non – engineering and undergoing apprenticeship training in a designated trade.
4. Technician (Vocational) apprentices
A person who holds a 10+2 vocational training course under the NCVT and undergoing apprenticeship training in a designated trade.
5. Optional trade apprentices
Apprentices undergo an Optional trade apprenticeship decided by an employer.
Who all are eligible to be apprentices under the Act?
Any individual who has completed 14 years of age (18 years in case of Hazardous Industries defined under the Apprenticeship Rules), is a minimum of 5th class pass (for Optional Trade), is meeting the standard of physical fitness for the course, and having minimum educational qualification prescribed for a trade can undergo apprenticeship training. Please refer to the Apprentices (Amendment) Act, 2014 & Rules 2019 for more details.
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What is National Apprenticeship Training Scheme (NATS)?
National Apprenticeship Training Scheme (NATS) is one of the flagship programs of the Government of India for Skilling Indian Youth.
The National Apprenticeship Training Scheme in India is a one-year program equipping technically qualified youth with practical knowledge and skills required in their field of work. The Apprentices are imparted training by the organizations at their place of work.
Trained Managers with well-developed training modules ensure that Apprentices learn the job quickly and competently. During the period of apprenticeship, the apprentices are paid a stipend amount, 50% of which is reimbursable to the employer from the Government of India.
At the end of the training period, the apprentices are issued a Certificate of Proficiency by the Government of India, which can be registered at all employment exchanges across India as valid employment experience.
The apprentices are placed for training at Central, State, and Private organizations with excellent training facilities.
There are Four Region under NATS.
- North Region
- South Region
- East Region
- West Region
Apprenticeship Training Scheme is a scheme where young, technically qualified people undergo training under a Master Trainer to become equipped for jobs in the Modern Scenario.
Apprenticeship is a time-tested way of learning a craft or trade under a Master Craftsman through the ages. It has the double benefit of earning while learning. An apprenticeship is an agreement between a person (an apprentice) who wants to learn a skill and an employer who needs a skilled worker.
The Apprentices are taught the latest applications, processes, and methodologies in their respective fields of work from some of the most renowned organizations in India. This also acts as a transition phase for a school/college student from classroom to a working background.
The apprentice also learns soft skills, work culture, ethics, and organizational behavior while undergoing training. This goes a long way in helping them secure permanent employment in the future. At the end of one year of training, they are issued a certificate attesting to their training and proficiency in a particular field. This serves as an experience certificate when they seek employment after their training.
National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS)
NAPS was launched in August 2016 by the Government of India to promote Apprenticeship in the country by providing financial incentives, technology, and advocacy support.
The scheme has the following two components
1. Sharing of 25% of prescribed stipend subject to a maximum of Rs. 1500/- per month per apprentice with the employers.
2. Sharing of basic training costs up to a maximum of Rs. 7,500 per apprentice.
The objectives of NAPS
To promote apprenticeship training in the country and to provide financial support to establishments to undertake apprenticeship programs in the following ways:-
i) To support establishments (especially MSMEs) to engage apprentices under the Apprentices Act and pay a stipend to them as per prescribed rates wherein under NAPS 25% of prescribed stipend subject to a maximum of Rs. 1500/- per month per apprentice is reimbursed to such establishments by the Government of India to engage apprentices.
ii) To support the establishments (especially MSMEs) per apprentice for a maximum of 500 hours is reimbursed to them (to be calculated @ Rs. 15/hour) /or to the Basic Training Provider engaged by them under NAPS by the Government of India.
Apprentices Act & Amendments
The Apprentices Act, 1961 and Apprenticeship Rules,1962 was enacted with the prime objective to utilize fully the facilities available in industries for imparting practical training and thus developing skilled manpower for industries.
Initially, the Act covered the apprenticeship training for the trade Apprentices. Subsequently, the Act was amended in 1973, 1986, and 2014 to bring the Graduates, Technician, Technician (Vocational), and Optional Trade Apprentices respectively under its purview, and Apprenticeship Rules, 1992 were revised in the year 2015.
There are some amendments in these existing apprenticeship acts and rules as;
- Apprentices Act 1961
- Central Apprenticeship Council Rules, 1962
- Apprenticeship Rules, 1992
- Amendment to Central Apprenticeship Rules 2015
- Apprenticeship (Amendment) Rules 2019
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