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ZERO ENERGY BUILDING

Last Updated on May 1, 2022 by Admin

Zero-energy buildings combine energy efficiency and renewable energy generation to consume only as much energy as can be produced onsite using renewable resources over a certain length of time. Zero-energy is a lofty but increasingly attainable aim that is gaining traction across geographic regions and economies.

Private commercial property owners are increasingly interested in establishing zero-energy buildings to satisfy their corporate goals, while federal government agencies and many state and local governments are starting to move toward zero-energy building targets in response to regulatory obligations.

A zero-energy building (ZEB), also known as a net zero-energy building, is a structure or structure that consumes zero net energy and emits zero carbon emissions over time. Zero-energy buildings (ZEBs) often require less energy than standard structures and generate their own energy on-site for use in the structure; as a result, they are not connected to the national (electricity) grid.

Environmental standards, both governmental and voluntary, have been created to address increasingly critical environmental challenges such as climate change, natural resource conservation, pollution, ecology, and population, and ZEBs have emerged in response.




What is Zero Energy Building

The phrase “zero-energy buildings” (ZEBs) refers to a class of buildings with extremely high energy efficiency, typified by a very low or nearly zero yearly energy requirement that is wholly or almost totally covered by renewable energy, including energy produced on-site or nearby.

Some of the key areas to examine in order to create a zero-energy house or building are:

  • The building’s sound construction may be durable.
  • Fireproofing is an important consideration.
  • Proper insulation is essential.
  • Design of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems that maximize energy efficiency, particularly when radiant heat is used.
  • Tilt-and-turn windows and electrochromic windows are two examples of window applications (smart windows).
  • Use LED lighting to reduce electricity use.
  • Use a heat pump instead of direct heat to maximize heat efficiency.

Difference between Green buildings and zero energy buildings

Sustainable, Eco, and green buildings strive to maximize the use of natural resources while consuming less energy than our current standard homes, whereas zero energy buildings make full use of natural resources while consuming zero energy.

The purpose of green building and sustainable architecture is to make better use of resources while lowering a structure’s negative environmental impact. Zero-energy buildings accomplish one important goal: they export as much renewable energy as they consume over the course of a year, lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Because ZEB goals are so important to the design process, they must be specified and set.





In some aspects, such as waste reduction and the use of recycled building materials, zero energy buildings may or may not be deemed “green.” However, compared to other “green” structures that require imported energy and/or fossil fuel to be habitable and meet the demands of residents, zero energy or net-zero buildings have a far smaller ecological effect during the life of the building.

The word green building can also apply to the technique of green building, which entails being resource-efficient from design to construction to operational procedures and, finally, deconstruction.

Green building differs from zero energy buildings in that it considers all environmental impacts, such as material use and water pollution, whereas zero energy buildings only consider the building’s energy consumption and ability to produce an equal amount, if not more, of energy from renewable energy sources.




Building Materials for zero energy buildings

To reach the goal of zero energy building these materials can be used:

  • Glue Laminated Timber

It is a type of laminated wood that has been glued together. In place of concrete and steel, a zero-energy house uses glue-laminated timber (which has a low carbon footprint) as the major structural element, which reduces the overall weight of the structure and also reduces damage in the event of natural disasters.

  • Roof with a Green Roof

A green roof with local plants covers the house and serves as insulation and a cooling system. Water is saved on the roof in small tanks and utilized to water the plants.

  • Hollow Concrete Blocks

The house’s walls are made of hollow bricks that are filled with concrete. Block is a mixture of concrete and wood that is antibacterial and provides excellent insulation. To prevent energy loss, the blocks are insulated on the inside.

Hollow blocks are used to create walls that handle moisture and also insulating. The blocks are filled with concrete (which contains 50% fly ash as a replacement for Portland cement) and smaller rebar.

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They lay the fabric on the roof, create an airspace between the fabric and the roof, then blow a foam under the fabric that expands on itself and acquires the shape of a cave-like roof. Because foam has insulating capabilities, the air beneath the roof stays cooler throughout the summer.

Alternatively, in the winter, a roofing system made of dark metal panels absorbs heat just like any other dark hue. A vapor barrier sits atop the foam on the roof, and above that is a 1.5-inch air space. Air is forced through the roof, making the area warmer, and flexible grilles are erected on the roof to allow hot air to escape, making the house warmer.




The floors are maintained heated by a system that allows hot or cold water to pass beneath the flooring, warming or cooling them. The floors are kept warm since the temperatures in western countries are often very low, and the warm water is provided by solar panels on the roof.

The water pipes go through the concrete floor and are heated by solar panels, resulting in a warm concrete floor. At some points throughout the house, a sun tunnel skylight is provided. The sun’s heat is transmitted through a system to the house’s floor, which maintains it warm at all times.

  • Rainwater Harvesting System

A rainwater harvesting system is used, and the water collected from the roof via a downspout is stored outside the home according to the owner’s storage capacity. This gathered water can be utilized for landscaping as well as other domestic purposes other than drinking, saving money on the expense of purchasing water from a third-party source.

  • Integrated Solar Roof Panels

Solar integrated roof panels provide hot water, but when the sun shines brightly, the water can become too hot, therefore a system is put within all sanitary fixtures that mixes cold water with hot water to keep the temperature safe to use. Similarly, when the sun sets too low, there is a shortage of hot water, thus there is a backup supply of hot water that is mixed with cold to make it safe to use.

A gas-powered water heater has been installed, which turns on and off automatically, necessitating a great deal of caution when operating the system. When you press the button in the kitchen or the toilet, a circulating system transports the hot water from the storage area to the toilets and kitchens, where it is reduced to the predetermined temperature at the receiving end, such as the washbasin, shower, bathtub, and anywhere else in the house where it is required.

  • Natural Ventilation in Zero-Energy Structures

Installing casement windows on the top and bottom of the wall enables natural and healthy air ventilation in a zero-energy home. All of the windows in the front and back of the home open and close in the opposite direction to provide natural ventilation, and a skylight is installed on the roof to provide natural air and light.




  • Green Plaster

To maintain a reasonable humidity level within the house, the walls are coated with a specific green material that has the ability to absorb moisture from the air, resulting in a constant humidity level. When we want to reduce the relative humidity of the house, the variable speed fan starts sending less air via the blowers further into the house, resulting in low humidity.

  • Solar Panels on the Rooftop

The solar panels on the roof transform the sun’s rays into electrical energy, and the electric department is astounded to see the meter begin to run backward. In fact, you can ask your utility providers to compensate you for something exceptional.

Inside, there is an inverter that converts the direct current produced by solar panels to the alternate current used in the United States. Reduced power consumption from lighting systems, which are all fluorescent or low voltage lights that are generally advanced lighting packages and extremely ornamental lights that can give you a very artistic and vintage look.

  • HVAC System in Zero-Energy Buildings

The air in the HVAC system is cooled by a chiller system, which chills or heats the water. The water is then circulated through low-pressure copper tubes to the coils, which are cooled with chilled water and connected to blowers located around the house, allowing the house to be chilled. Outside, 1.5 tons and 2 tons compressors, both factories charged with refrigerant, are occasionally used.

A chiller system is connected to each compressor. So, when there is just one family, the 1.5 tons or 2 tons compressor works automatically depending on the weather, and when there is a need for more chilling, such as for a function in the house, both compressors start operating in random order to chill the house.

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The overhang on the windows is designed so that in the summer they block the sun from hitting the windows, and in the winter, they allow the sun to reach the windows while also providing protection from the rain. The wind direction is taken into account when designing this system. The front porch of the home has a large overhang, which prevents direct sunlight from heating the entrance.

Unlike traditional fireplaces, which emit smoke through a chimney, this design has no chimney, and the fireplace acts as a heater, heating the entire house. The flu gas from the fireplace passes through heat exchangers, where it is transformed to fresh air and then recycled back into the house. To summarize, zero-energy buildings are exceptional, as they produce more energy than they consume.




How to Design a Net Zero Energy Building

Some of the ways to achieve net-zero energy will be shown below, A building’s energy efficiency and net zero energy goals are determined by a number of factors.

  • Location

Several factors must be considered while constructing a net zero energy building. The construction site, the location of the construction, the temperature, and the building’s exposure all have an impact.
Consider the following factors, among others:

  1. Climate
  2. Sun
  3. Wind Patterns
  4. Temperature
  5. Rain Patterns
  • Orientation

The success of reaching net zero energy depends on the building’s orientation. When a building faces south, certain renewable energy generation devices, such as solar panels, perform best.

However, energy-saving factors are also crucial. You can save money by orienting your building to take advantage of the shadow, in addition to collecting the sun’s energy. This implies you’ll need to use less air conditioning to keep your building cool in hotter areas.

Another essential consideration is lighting. Lighting accounts for over a quarter of a building’s total energy use. That load can be reduced by orienting your building to take advantage of natural illumination. When deciding on a building’s orientation, measures such as window placement and the usage of skylights can be explored.

You can also position your structure to benefit from natural breezes. Natural resources can be used to power your building’s energy systems and minimize energy requirements while also conserving resources.




  • Design

The next step is to plan the structure. Make careful use of the best insulating materials possible to save as much energy as feasible in the structure. Windows (dual-pane or, better yet, triple-pane and effectively sealed) can help save energy.

Energy production isn’t a focus of passive methods. It’s all about conserving energy and getting the most out of it. In fact, they do not consume any energy, which is why they assist buildings in achieving net zero energy use

  1. High-efficiency appliances use less energy and contribute to a lower overall energy load, as do low-energy HVAC systems.
  2. Air sealing keeps cooled or heated air from leaking via cracks, which are commonly seen around windows and doors.
  3. Insulation serves the same purpose by providing an extra barrier between the inside and exterior of a building, reducing the demand for air cooling or heating to maintain climate control.
  4. This layer retains heat (in the winter) and cold air (in the summer) that would otherwise escape via walls, ceilings, and other openings.

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R-values are used to measure the effectiveness of insulation. The R-value of insulation varies according to its thickness, density, and type: the higher the R-value, the better. Examples of insulation:

  1. Fiberglass
  2. Wool
  3. Foam boards or blocks
  4. Cellulose
  5. Polystyrene
  6. Polyisocyanurate
  7. Polyurethane

In tropical areas, ventilation is very crucial. Fresh air must be introduced to replace the stale air. This can help to maintain a comfortable inside temperature while also reducing moisture build-up, which can lead to mold and unpleasant aromas.

Natural solutions can considerably minimize the amount of energy necessary to ensure optimum ventilation, such as by using electrical fans.

New building architecture increases efficiency and promotes sustainability.




  • Renewables

The final phase in designing high-performance buildings is selecting which renewable energy sources are best appropriate for the structure. If the structure is large enough, wind generators could be installed on-site rather than off-site. For new homes or those that can be converted, solar panels may be the way to go.

Active solutions, such as the utilization of renewable energy, reduce energy usage during the construction process

  1. Photovoltaics — Photovoltaics is the direct conversion of light into electric power through the use of semiconducting materials like silicon. A solar panel is made up of several photovoltaic cells that work together to generate power.
  2. Wind power – Wind is a type of solar energy that is generated by three different factors. The sun’s uneven heating of the atmosphere, abnormalities in the Earth’s surface, and the planet’s rotation all have an impact. The generated wind moves propeller blades around a rotor, which creates power by spinning a generator. Hundreds of massive propellers may be seen in wind farms near San Bernardino (San Gorgonio Pass) and Northern California (Altamont Pass).
  3. Hydroelectric power – Hydroelectric facilities absorb and convert the energy of falling water into electricity. Water flows downhill and into a reservoir behind a dam, where it is caught. This reservoir functions as a battery, releasing water during times of high demand to generate electricity.
  4. Biomass – Plants produce chemical energy from the sun through photosynthesis, which is stored as biomass. It can be immediately burned to provide heat or transformed into renewable liquid and gas fuels. A log on a fire can be used as biomass. It’s similar to a solar battery that produces bioenergy.
  5. Geothermal power — Water pressure in the form of steam is used in geothermal power. Hot water is pumped to the surface via geothermal wells drilled a mile or two beneath. The pressure drops there, and the water condenses into steam. The steam generates power by spinning a turbine attached to a generator.
  6. Solar power – Sunlight shining on a panel is absorbed by photovoltaic cells in the panel, resulting in solar power. This produces electricity by generating an electrical charge in response to an electrical field in the cell.
  7. Solar thermal — Solar thermal power systems capture and focus sunlight using mirrors. This raises the temperature until it reaches the point where power can be generated. Curved parabolic troughs, such as those found in the Mojave Desert, are an example.




Affordable zero energy home design & construction in 12 Steps

Building and designing cheap zero-energy homes — the pinnacle of energy efficiency – entails 12 interconnected processes that use readily available building materials and equipment, as well as simple-to-learn construction techniques. You may create a new home that is both affordable to build and own by following these instructions.

  • Start with Smart Design

Smart design is the foundation of cost-effective zero net energy houses. All of the energy efficiency measures required in designing a net zero home should be familiar to designers and architects, as well as builders and homeowners. And the house should be built in such a way that builders and subcontractors can carry out these processes as cheaply as possible. Builders should request that designers pay extra attention to a number of design parameters. These important aspects will not fall through the cracks if the builder and designer communicate effectively.

  • Solar Tempering with the Sun

During the winter, using the sun to heat through south-facing windows reduces heating expenditures. In the summer, shading those same windows reduces cooling expenditures. Solar tempering tries to maximize the passive usage of the sun’s heat while avoiding the additional expenditure of thermal mass that is required for optimal passive solar heating. Solar tempering should be considered throughout the planning stage.

  • Use energy modelling to optimize

To ensure that the objective of net zero energy can be met while keeping costs low, the home’s energy demand should be evaluated during the design process using energy modeling software. Design decisions might be made or amended based on the findings in order to balance building performance and construction costs.




  • Seal the Building Envelope Tightly

The single most cost-effective measure builders can take to improve the energy efficiency of a zero-energy home is super-sealing the building envelope. There are a number of tried-and-true air-sealing methods available. Select a strategy that is appropriate for your climate, talents, and money.

  • Insulate the Building Envelope to the Maximum

Super insulating the house, after making it airtight, maybe the second most cost-effective technique for making a zero-energy home. As previously said, energy modeling can assist you in optimizing the insulation levels for the ceiling, walls, and floors. Choose frame methods that will make it easier to insulate the building envelope and reduce thermal bridging.

  • Install well-insulated windows and doors

Windows and doors are the third most cost-effective way to make a home more energy-efficient, as they act as large energy holes in a well-insulated, airtight building shell. Control heat loss and gain through windows and doors by choosing the right goods, carefully placing them, and optimizing their size and orientation.

  • Create a Clean, Energy-Efficient Air Supply

Because zero-energy dwellings are so airtight, a constant supply of fresh filtered air and moisture management are essential. This requirement for ventilation has a silver lining: zero-energy homes are healthier and more comfortable than conventional homes. Heat recovery ventilation (HRV) or energy recovery ventilation (ERV) systems, which discharge stale air while recovering its heat and returning it to the home with fresh air, are very energy-efficient ventilation systems.




  • Choose a Low-Energy Heating and Cooling System

Heating and cooling systems that are highly efficient and cost-effective are critical to achieving the net zero energy goal. An air-source ductless heat pump, often known as a mini-split heat pump, is a suitable option. These systems are extremely energy efficient and avoid the drawbacks of central forced-air systems as well as the high prices of thermal heat pumps.

  • Use Caution When Heating Water

After heating and cooling, water heating is often the most expensive energy consumption in a home. As a result, designers and builders must choose and locate efficient water heating equipment, as well as other steps, to reduce hot water usage.

  • Replace inefficient lighting with energy-efficient lighting

A key component of zero energy homes is minimizing energy use for lighting while optimizing illumination for residents. LED lights are ideal for these applications. They use less energy than CFLs, last far longer, and do not contain mercury. They can also suit a wide range of lighting requirements, from very bright white light to soft, warm light. Selecting the correct LED lights for the job, strategically placed lights, and using natural light can substantially cut a home’s energy use.

  • Appliances and electronics that are energy efficient should be chosen.

Because zero energy homes feature very energy efficient building shells and use high-efficiency HVAC and water heating equipment, a new category of energy expenditure, appliances, and electronics, emerges as the most significant source of energy expenditure. As a result, choosing high-efficiency appliances and devices is the last step in reducing home energy consumption.

  • Use the Sun as a Source of Renewable Energy in the Grid-

The most cost-effective kind of renewable energy for a zero-energy home is currently tied to solar photovoltaic panels. They may supply all of a home’s energy requirements, including lighting, heating, cooling, appliances, and hot water. They are, however, the most expensive component of a zero-energy home, thus solutions for lowering or minimizing those costs should be considered.




Advantages & disadvantages of Zero Energy Buildings

Zero-energy buildings are still a relatively new concept in the construction business. These are some of the benefits and drawbacks of Zero Energy Buildings.”

Advantages of Zero Energy Buildings

  • Reduction in the net monthly expense of living
  • Higher resale value
  • Increased comfort in living
  • Better reliability
  • Economical even in the long run
  • Isolation from the future energy rate increase
  • Environmentally compatible
  • Lower emission of carbon
  • Sustainable construction

Disadvantages of Zero Energy Buildings

  • Higher initial investment
  • Lack of expertise in such technology
  • The requirement for newer relatively advanced technology

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Conclusion

Zero energy buildings are ecologically friendly homes that produce far more energy than they consume. They appear to be just like any other house, but there are a variety of ways that may be used to reduce their energy consumption to zero. Zero-energy buildings are cost-effective, cheap residences that can be built by a family on a regular salary and are also very healthful.

In today’s environment, cost and economic building are paramount. By the end of the year, these homes have produced more energy than they have consumed. Summer utility bills are no longer as expensive. These homes raise the bar for the construction sector to new heights.




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