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Everything you need to know about Renewable Energy

Last Updated on April 3, 2024 by Admin

Discover all you need to know about renewable energy, including the advantages and disadvantages of using renewable energy rather than fossil fuels.


Renewable energy has been on the rise for over a decade, and many agree that it is an essential part of combating climate change. The hope is that, eventually, clean energy will replace fossil fuels, which cause so much damage to the environment and living creatures. For now, though, we still see exciting growth in the renewables industry.

You may already know a bit about renewable energy, but we’re here to give you the complete lowdown. We’ll be discussing fossil fuels, types of renewable energy, the pros and cons of renewable energy, how renewable energy is being used worldwide, and what the future of renewables could hold.

What are fossil fuels?

The three main types of fossil fuels are coal, crude oil, and natural gas. They’ve named fossil fuels because they were formed from the fossils of plants and animals from millions of years ago, and their origins are also why they have a high carbon content. To learn more about the history of fossil fuels, try our Global Resource Politics: the Past, Present, and Future of Oil, Gas, and Shale course.

Fossil fuels are extracted using various methods, including mining, drilling, fracking, and acidizing. These methods are harmful to the environment, whether by destroying ecosystems and landscapes, causing deadly oil spills, increasing air and water pollution, and creating greenhouse gases that heat the earth. The planet’s rising temperature is one of the better-known symptoms of climate change and has already resulted in dangerous heatwaves and melting polar ice caps. 

According to BP’s Statistical Review of World Energy 2020, crude oil currently creates the most significant percentage of the world’s energy, at 33%. Coal-fired power plants now fuel 27% of global electricity, and natural gas makes up 24% of global energy consumption. 

These stats show that fossil fuels are still supplying 84% of the world’s energy. The reason for the continued use of fossil fuels when we have alternative energy sources is because we’ve relied heavily on them for about 150 years. They’re relatively efficient, ready-made, and well-established. However, with renewable energy on the rise, we hope our reliance on fossil fuels will come to an end. To find out more about carbon emissions, check out our blog on how to reduce your carbon footprint


What is renewable energy?

Renewable energy comes from energy sources that replenish themselves and are, therefore, naturally sustainable. For example, sunlight and wind are not powered by anything other than nature, and so we can always rely on them to create energy – so long as the weather permits it. 

Another term that gets thrown around a lot when referring to renewable energy is ‘clean energy’ because it doesn’t require any ‘dirty’ methods or have consequences that will harm the environment.

If you’re wondering what we mean by ‘energy’ first, this can refer to several things. Generally, scientists define energy as the ability to do work, but it can take heat, electricity, fuel, chemical reactions, and more. There are two types of energy, kinetic and potential. Kinetic energy is energy in motion, and potential energy is stored energy.

Although renewable energy might sound like something relatively recent, humans have been harnessing the power of mother nature for centuries. Waterwheels-powered machinery as far back as 200 BC, windmills pumped water and milled grain in the 1500s, and the world’s first solar energy system was created in the 1860s. 

The first instance of renewable energy used commercially was in 1927 when some US farmers bought wind turbines. Since then, we’ve come a long way and now have entire renewable energy plants and farms to help power our planet more kindly and create a sustainable bioeconomy

What are the pros and cons of renewable energy?

There are pros and cons to everything in life, and although renewable energy has more advantages, there are reasons why fossil fuels are still the number one energy provider. Here, we’ll provide you with an overview of the advantages and disadvantages. 


Advantages of renewable energy

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Disadvantages of renewable energy

What types of renewable energy are there?

Wind energy

One of the most popular forms of renewable energy in the UK, wind farms is becoming a common sight. The wind is also the cheapest renewable source of energy in the US. The mechanics are relatively simple; the wind pushes turbines that spin to drive generators, creating electricity. Harnessing the wind for power first started over 7,000 years ago, and we’re confident it’ll continue to be used for thousands of years in the future.

Solar energy

Sunlight is both powerful and abundant here on Earth, making it the perfect power source for humans. We’ve already been taking advantage of it for eons, whether to stay warm or grow food. To give you an idea about the amount of solar energy naturally produced on earth, more power comes from the sun in one hour than we use globally in an entire year. Imagine if we could store that? Of course, not everywhere is sunny, but smaller amounts of solar power can be created on a cloudy day.

You’re probably familiar with solar panels, but how do they work? They are made from silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells which absorb sunlight and convert it into electrical charges. Alternatively, large solar power plants sometimes use mirrors to reflect sunlight onto receivers, collect solar power, and convert it to heat. This heat can be stored or used to produce electricity.

Hydroelectric energy

Hydroelectric energy, or hydropower, uses water to create points and is the world’s most significant renewable energy source by far. Most commonly, hydropower plants make use of rivers or reservoirs to produce energy. Sometimes they use dams to store river water in a puddle, and sometimes a diversion will push part of a river through a canal or penstock. Typically, water will be used to spin turbines that activate generators to produce electricity. 

Theoretically, hydropower is a clean energy source, but some issues arise from its use. Although hydropower doesn’t produce greenhouse gases, hydropower facilities harm homes and wildlife. Reservoirs may replace homes, nature, and essential natural or archaeological sites. Also, there can be risks for fish that live in the rivers or pools, including entrapment and changing water quality.

Tidal energy

Tidal energy is another form of hydropower, but it only makes use of the ocean tide. Like other types of hydropower, it relies on water-driving turbine generators, but it is more consistent due to the predictability of tides. Tidal and wave energy projects are still pretty new, so they are currently quite expensive. They also can cause environmental concern, as does anything that involves manipulating an area where wildlife live. However, there is still progress in the tidal energy industry, so perhaps it’ll become more viable.

Biomass energy

Biomass consists of anything that comes from animals and plants, such as wood, crops, and even garbage. Energy is created when biomass is burned, releasing heat that can generate electricity using a steam turbine. However, if burning materials doesn’t sound very environmentally friendly to you, you’d be right. Some evidence suggests that burning some forms of biomass results in higher carbon emissions than burning fossil fuels. So, perhaps we don’t want to rely on biomass energy in the future, even though it’s a renewable source.

Geothermal energy

This renewable energy source involves harnessing the natural heat underneath the surface of the earth. Geothermal energy has been used for thousands of years in some places for heating and cooking purposes, and it can be used directly to heat homes or generate electricity. The energy isn’t intermittent like sun or wind, so it is always readily available.


However, there are some downsides, such as the foul smell of hydrogen sulfide and potential mini tremors caused by geothermal power plants. Geothermal energy can only be harnessed in countries where there are volcanoes or hot springs, as all of its activity is confined to the boundaries of tectonic plates.

Nuclear energy

You may be surprised to see nuclear energy here, but it is technically a renewable energy source. However, the material used in nuclear power plants is a short form of uranium, U-235, which is not renewable. Although nuclear power plants do not cause air pollution, emit greenhouse gases or destroy the environment, they can be tough to run safely and have their fair share of risk. 

As you probably know, nuclear energy produces radioactive material, and that’s not something we want around. However, you might be curious to discover that fossil fuels have caused far more deaths than nuclear energy has. Nuclear energy results in 99.8% fewer deaths than brown coal, 99.7% fewer than coal, 99.6% fewer than oil, and 97.5% fewer than gas. So maybe we shouldn’t be so quick to shut down nuclear energy as a potential resource.

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How much of the world’s power is renewable?

Now we’ve gone over all of the main types of renewable energy, let’s find out how much of the world’s power is renewable right now. IEA’s Global Energy Review 2020 showed that the share of renewables in global electricity generation was at 28% at the beginning of 2020, compared to 26% at the start of 2019. 

If we look even further back to 2010, we can see just how much things have changed. Coal was on the rise in the US, while wind and solar power comprised just 1% of the country’s energy. The 2011 issue of Renewable Energy Focus magazine stated that the share of global energy consumption from renewable sources was 3.3% in 2010. This means we’ve made a considerable jump towards renewable energy production and consumption, and we’ve certainly stopped viewing coal as some magic fuel, the answer to all of our energy needs.

Something else to note is where our renewable energy is coming from. IEA’s review also found that in 2010, hydropower provided 77% of green power, but now that has fallen to 45%. This is a good thing, as some forms of hydropower, such as large dams, are not environmentally friendly. More sustainable options such as solar and wind power have been taking over, as the review states that solar power capacity has increased by 18 times since 2010, and wind power has increased by four times. 

Which country uses the most renewable energy?

Currently, Iceland is the worldwide leader in renewable energy, and it is the only country in the world to obtain 100% of its energy from renewable resources. 87% of this is from hydropower, and 13% is from geothermal power, which is possible due to many naturally occurring hot springs and an abundance of volcanoes.

Other countries doing well on the renewable energy front are Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Sweden, Germany, and Scotland. China is the world’s biggest investor in renewable energy, and they own six of the world’s largest solar module manufacturing firms and the largest wind turbine manufacturer. The US also invests in renewable energy, having wind energy capacity nearly as large as China. However, both China and the US create a lot of pollution and use a large amount of energy, so their interest in renewables doesn’t quite make them green. Not yet, anyway.

Is there a future in renewable energy?

If you’re wondering whether there is a viable future in renewable energy, the answer is a resounding yes. The IEA Renewables 2020 report suggests that renewable energy will overtake coal and become the most significant electricity generation globally in 2025. By then, renewables are forecasted to supply one-third of the world’s electricity. Of course, we will need effective governance to achieve these goals, which you can learn more about in our Transforming Energy Systems: Why Governance Matters course. 

Is renewable energy profitable?

One of the reasons why there is such a positive future for renewable energy is that it is more profitable than fossil fuels. The energy from wind farms, solar plants, and hydropower plants arrives for free, as long as the weather allows it. The same cannot be said for oil and gas, which have to be collected and refined or turned into something else.

A Joint Report by the International Energy Agency and the Centre for Climate Finance & Investment was published by Imperial College London last year, after analyzing the return on energy investments in renewables and fossil fuels over the previous five and ten years. The study found that in the space of 5 years, investments in renewable energy in the UK generated returns of 75.4% compared to 8.8% for fossil fuels. The disparity is even more shocking in France and Germany, with returns of 178.2% from renewables and -20.7% for fossil fuel investments.

Figures like these show that powering the planet using renewable energy is not merely an idealist or romantic idea, with no financial basis in the real world. There is indisputable evidence that switching to renewable energy is better for our wallets, as well as for the environment.

Can the world thrive on 100% renewable energy?

So, we know that renewable energy can be more profitable than fossil fuels, but is it possible for the world to thrive using 100% green energy? The short answer is yes; as soon as 2050, solar and wind energy are powering half of the world, according to BloombergNEF forecasts.

We must take action quickly, as global temperatures could rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels between 2030 and 2052 if global warming keeps increasing at the same rate as it is now. This may not sound like much, but a one- to two-degree drop was enough to send the Earth into a Little Ice Age in the past.

There was also a very in-depth study carried out by a Stanford University researcher in 2017, published in the Joule journal. The extensive research performed an analysis of the 139 countries that produce 99% of the world’s carbon emissions. Renewable energy roadmaps were created, providing overviews of how each of these countries could transition entirely to renewable energy sources. The researchers explain how these transitions mean we could avoid global warming, help the planet and provide millions of jobs. 

All of the 139 countries were found to have renewable energy sources within their borders, meaning they wouldn’t have to rely on anyone else for their energy. Many countries even have enough to rely on renewables for 100% of their power. Ultimately, the study suggests that the planet would be ready to switch to 100% renewable energy by 2050 if the right plans were carried out.

Final thoughts

We hope this has provided you with an overview of renewable energy and what it could mean for the future of Planet Earth. Suppose you’re interested in learning more about creating a sustainable future. In that case, you can try our Tackling Environmental Challenges for a Sustainable Future course or give Exploring Possible Futures: Modeling in Environmental and Energy Economics a try. The future holds a lot of hope for the renewables industry, and it’s essential to be aware of the tangible solutions that exist when dealing with global issues. That way, we can help make sure they happen!

Source: This article is originally posted on FutureLearn

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