Last Updated on May 6, 2022 by Admin
Construction is an industry that generates a variety of waste sources. This is understandable given the wide variety of materials used in construction. It is critical to understand the various waste types so that you can identify them and dispose of them properly. Read to know in detail about construction waste management at construction sites.
Knowing what materials are harmful and how to operate around them is an important component of construction site safety. There will be some materials that will require specific environmental services to dispose of, and others that can be dumped ordinarily. In order to move toward a more sustainable sector, it is also necessary to understand which resources can be recycled.
Construction Waste Management is a component of Sustainable Development, which is being pushed by increased concern about man’s impact on the environment. The management of construction processes to reduce, reuse, recycle, and properly dispose of waste has a significant impact on the project’s final cost, quality, time, and environmental impact.
What is Construction Waste?
Building debris, rubble, earth, concrete, steel, timber, and mixed site clearance materials are among the materials generated by various construction activities such as land excavation or formation, civil and building construction, site clearance, demolition activities, roadwork, and building renovation.
It also covers instances of labor and energy waste during construction projects. Material waste, on the other hand, has been identified as a major issue in the construction industry, with significant implications for the sector’s efficiency as well as the environmental impact of construction projects.
Most formerly thought to be inert building wastes have been discovered to produce hazardous leachates with negative environmental consequences. As a result, for the objective of building a healthy and sustainable built environment, the construction sector must employ environmentally sound planning and construction procedures.
Types of Construction waste materials
Mainly types of construction waste materials are divided into 5 parts which are as follows:
The most common sorts of materials used in construction are building materials. Construction projects come in many shapes and sizes. There will always be a need for building materials, whether for basic construction, demolition, repair, or remodeling projects, and with that comes building material waste.
Nails, wiring, insulation, rebar, wood, plaster, scrap metal, cement, and bricks are some of the most typical examples of these materials. When these materials end up in the trash, it’s usually because they’ve been destroyed. However, in some circumstances, it’s just because they were under-utilized. The good news is that a lot of these materials can be recycled.
Wood is a material that may be reused in a variety of ways. Wood debris can be salvaged and repurposed for new construction projects at any time. Although the disposal of these types of garbage is usually very simple, it is nevertheless necessary to dispose of them properly. Cement, plaster, and bricks are typically crushed and reused in subsequent construction projects. A recycling or waste management business will come to collect the material as long as it is confined in a proper dumpster.
Materials removed during the preparation of a demolition or building site are referred to as dredging materials. Simply described, these are natural elements such as trees, tree stumps, rocks, dirt, and occasionally rubble.
Although these aren’t often considered hazardous items, they should be collected by a waste management company that can handle dredge waste disposal and trash collection.
Specific materials from this garbage that may be reused, such as wood from uprooted trees, can be transported to a recycling plant. Some of the most significant parts of dredge waste disposal include proper recycling and disposal of natural resources.
Hazardous Waste Materials
One of the most significant forms of construction waste materials to be able to recognize and handle is hazardous waste. Not only may this type of waste be hazardous to individuals who work with it, but it can also pose a threat to the general public if not properly managed.
Construction, demolition, repair, and renovation operations can all produce hazardous trash. Much of the waste may be traced back to basic building materials. Lead, asbestos, plasterboard, paint thinners, strippers, mercury, fluorescent bulbs, and aerosol cans are just a few examples of hazardous waste generated by the construction industry.
Environmental cleanup businesses can assist with the correct disposal of these dangerous materials. State and federal rules govern the disposal of hazardous materials. Failure to comply with any of these standards can result in not only the exposure of people and the environment to harmful pollutants but also significant fines and penalties.
Demolition waste materials
There are some trash categories that are common in demolition projects. As a result, they tend to be divided into a few sub-types. Asbestos and insulation are two common types of demolition waste that are also extremely toxic. Asbestos exposure can lead to lung illness and cancer.
Because asbestos can form very small flakes that are easily breathed, this is the case. There is, however, insolation that is not totally formed by asbestos. The difficulty is that even if only a small amount of asbestos is present in the insulation, it is still extremely dangerous. Non-asbestos-containing materials such as concrete, bricks, tiles, and ceramics are another category of demolition trash.
Reinforced concrete has a high recycling value since it may be reused to build new concrete. This type of material can be crushed on the construction site. Because there would be less demand for vehicles, transportation expenses will be kept low. The third category of demolition waste items includes wood, glass, and plastic. The wood from these sites can be disposed of in the same manner as previously mentioned.
Plastic is a significant contributor to the waste generated during demolition and building projects. Part of this is due to the fact that plastic is included in many of the building materials. Styrofoam, PEX pipes, and PVC siding are among the plastics that must be properly disposed of.
Treated materials containing hazardous substances
Specially treated woods, glass, and plastics are used in a variety of construction tasks, and they generally contain dangerous compounds. There are other hazardous bituminous mixes that incorporate coal tar. Copper, bronze, brass, aluminum, iron, steel, and tin, for example, are all non-hazardous metals.
Cables holding oil, coal tar, and other hazardous compounds are examples of dangerous metals to be aware of. Then there are soils and stones that may contain harmful compounds. Any material that contains asbestos pieces, as well as asbestos-containing materials, is an example of this.
Hazardous gypsum materials, such as drywall and other masonry waste, can be classified as such if they include hazardous compounds. Finally, solvent-containing paints, varnishes, adhesives, and sealants will be classified as hazardous waste. It’s vital to know if you’re utilizing any treated materials so you can figure out whether they’re harmful or not, making the process of getting rid of them a lot easier.
Right approach toward construction waste management
Construction waste management can be approached in a variety of ways. The process of handling construction trash extends far beyond the garbage disposal. It is a comprehensive strategy for efficiently utilizing building resources with the goal of reducing waste generation while simultaneously maximizing the use of trash generated.
Dumping building trash in landfills is the most popular method of waste management. However, since landfill space has become scarce, the contractor’s landfill disposal fees have risen. In addition, poor material control on construction sites wastes a significant number of materials.
This has spurred the need for waste prevention alternatives, as well as measures to reduce, reuse, and/or recycle waste generated, dubbed the “three Rs” of construction waste management. In keeping with the principles of sustainable construction, a waste hierarchy has been extensively embraced as a guide for construction managers. According to the waste hierarchy,
- Reducing trash creation is often the most effective environmental remedy.
- When further reduction is impossible, products and materials can occasionally be repurposed for the same or a different purpose.
- If this is not possible, the value should be recovered from waste by recycling, composting, or waste energy recovery.
- If none of these options are suitable, garbage should be disposed of in the most environmentally friendly manner possible.
The economic and environmental benefits of reducing, reusing, and recycling garbage are the two main reasons for doing so. Environmental benefits include reducing the risk of immediate and future pollution and harm to human health, while economic benefits include cheaper project costs, greater business patronage, and a reduced risk of trash litigation, among others.
Reduce, Divert and reuse and Recycle Construction Waste Materials
By adopting source reduction, rescuing, recycling, and reusing existing resources, you can help divert construction and demolition debris from landfills. You can also purchase discarded and recycled materials and items.
You can reduce the life-cycle of material use, energy use, and waste generation by reducing source reduction. Addressing solid waste issues should be given top priority. The prevention of waste generation begins with source reduction. Preserving existing buildings rather than constructing new ones, optimizing the size of new buildings, designing new buildings for adaptability to extend their life, using construction methods that allow disassembly and facilitate material reuse, and using alternative farming techniques are some examples.
Reducing construction and demolition debris saves landfill space, minimizes the environmental effect of creating new materials, and can lower overall construction project costs by avoiding the purchase of new materials.
Divert and Reuse
Landscape and land cleaning rubbish, Asphalt pavements are examples of materials that can be redirected. Construction and demolition waste can be redirected and turned into a resource.
- Masonry debris and rubble
- Clean wood
- Insulation materials
- Gravel and aggregate products
Recovering used but valuable building and demolition materials for reuse is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way to save money and conserve natural resources. Deconstruction can be utilized on several levels to recover useable resources and reduce waste. It provides the following advantages:
- Increases material recovery
- Protects precious forest resources
- Creates jobs
- Allows communities to develop local economic activity around salvaging or reprocessing recovered materials
- Diverts demolition debris from landfills
Many construction components and trash can be repurposed. Aggregate and concrete products are frequently made from recycled concrete and rubbish. Engineered wood items, such as furniture, can be made using recycled wood. Metals such as steel, copper, and brass are also desirable recyclables.
Waste recycling can be done in three ways:
- Site-separated: Multiple boxes are used for each sort of garbage. Separating construction debris on the job site provides quick feedback to all workers and can help the project meet its recycling targets. Site separation also fosters a responsible work environment and is the most effective technique for achieving diversion goals. It does, however, take up more room and necessitates close attention.
- Mixed recycling: This form of recycling is collected in a single container. Everything is sorted off-site by the hauler. This makes garbage management on-site easier for field personnel. Commingled recycling takes up the least amount of storage space and is the best alternative for facilities with limited capacity.
- Hybrid recycling: This method of recycling incorporates both site separation and mixed recycling. One box for wood, one for concrete, and one for non-recyclable debris, for example. Hybrid recycling combines the benefits of both methods. It balances weight and sorting effort. By working in stages, the overall number of boxes can be lowered. Sorting transporters have less work, which means lower transport prices.
Potential of various waste materials for reuse and recycle
In order to keep the cost of new buildings low, the use of reusable and recyclable materials becomes increasingly important. Three primary factors must be considered when choosing a reusable and recyclable material: cost, compatibility with other materials, and material qualities.
The following are examples of waste materials:
Bricks– After removing the mortar, bricks can be reused if disassembled properly. Broken bricks can be refilled or utilized=0[;4 to make debris paver blocks and debris blocks.
Stone– Depending on the shape of available stones, stone can be used for plinth creation, masonry building, landscape purposes, ledges, platforms, window sills, coping, and so on.
Concrete– Because aggregates make about 75 percent of concrete, using recycled aggregate is particularly promising. Slag, power plant wastes, recycled concrete, mining and quarrying wastes, waste glass, incinerator residue, red mud, burnt clay, sawdust, combustor ash, and foundry sand are all considered aggregates in this scenario. Massive amounts of demolished concrete can be simply recycled as aggregate and reused in concrete. Worldwide, research and development activities have been undertaken to demonstrate its practicality, economic viability, and cost-effectiveness. CBRI and CRRI have worked on recycled concrete in a few locations in India, but because waste and quality of raw material produced are site-specific, massive inputs are required if recycled material is to be employed in building to produce high-grade concrete.
Timber– After cleaning, de-nailing, and sizing, whole timber from building and demolition projects can be simply and immediately reused in other construction projects. Timber pieces from dismantled buildings may have aesthetic and antique value in rare situations.
Plywood and other wood-based boards– Plywood and other wood-based boards can be reused for interior work in new construction or recycled for the production of new wood-based boards.
Gypsum- About 6 MT of waste gypsums such as phosphor-gypsum, Fluro-gypsum, and other types of gypsum are produced annually in India. Plaster made from leftover gypsum offers better engineering properties while posing no health risks. Portland cement, masonry cement, sand-lime bricks, partition walls, flooring tiles, blocks, gypsum plaster, fibrous gypsum boards, and super-sulfate cement can all be made from phosphorus-gypsum and lime sludge.
Metals and metal alloys– The most profitable and recyclable commodity is ferrous metal. More than 80% of scrap generated in India gets recycled. Scrap steel is almost entirely recycled, allowing for several recycling cycles. To reduce waste on the construction site, structural steel can be reused and 100% steel can be recycled. Aluminum, copper, lead, and zinc are the most common nonferrous metals gathered from construction and demolition sites. In 2004, India used up to 95000 tons of aluminum, with about 70% of it being recycled. Out of a total market of 262000 tons, copper is recycled up to 119000 tons.
Debris– Construction debris can be recycled to make paver blocks and masonry blocks for usage in low-traffic areas. Other applications for processed debris include leveling lean concrete, mortar for brickwork, bedding mortar for pavement tiles, and landfilling. Processed waste products cost 32% less than new construction materials at market rates, yet their strength is comparable to new materials. In Pune, the market potential is estimated to be around 40 crores of bricks per year.
Composite materials– When plastic garbage is collected separately and cleaned, it is optimal for recycling. When plastic trash is mixed with other plastics or impurities, recycling becomes challenging. Plastic can be recycled and utilized in goods such as street furniture, roof, and floor coverings, PVC window noise barriers, cable ducting, and panels that are specifically made to employ recycled plastic. In Japan, waste plastic is burned at a high temperature and converted into ultra-fine particles known as man-made soil. The construction industry is the third-largest consumer of composite materials, after the automotive and aerospace industries.
Composite materials, such as thermoplastics, are non-biodegradable goods that use non-renewable resources. Thermoplastics (Polycarbonate, polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC, and other thermoplastics) can be recycled, although at a high cost, whereas thermosets (Epoxy adhesives) are difficult to recycle.
The absence of appropriate markets, high recycling costs, and lower quality of recycled materials are the most significant commercialization challenges in composite material recycling. PVC-U is recycled into wire accessories and cable management systems, such as skirting and trucks, primarily from window and door fabricators. Down-cycling composite materials are possible.
Construction Waste Management’s overall goal is to keep materials out of landfills by diverting construction waste, demolition, and land-clearing debris from landfill disposal, redirecting recyclable recovered resources back to the manufacturing process, and redirecting reusable materials to appropriate sites.
Waste management requirements should be considered early in the design process and discussed at both preconstruction and regular job meetings to ensure that contractors and appropriate subcontractors are fully aware of the implications of these requirements on their work prior to and during construction.
Waste management should also be coordinated with or included in the standard quality assurance program, and waste management needs should be addressed on a regular basis during each project phase. Furthermore, a separate staff can best serve the project’s long-term sustainability.